Choulant History And Bibliography

Johann Ludwig Choulant (12 November 1791 – 18 July 1861) was a German physician and medical historian born in Dresden. He was the father of architect Ludwig Theodor Choulant (1827–1900).

He studied medicine at the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum in Dresden and at the University of Leipzig, followed by work in 1817 as a physician/obstetrician in Altenburg. During the same year he joined the staff at the Medizinischen Realwörterbuch of Johann Friedrich Pierer (1767–1832). In 1821 he was a physician at the Königlichen Katholischen Krankenstift in Dresden-Friedrichstadt.

In 1822 he began work as a lecturer at the Königlich Chirurgisch-Medizinische Akademie (Royal Surgical-Medical Academy) in Dresden, where during the following year he became a professor of theoretical medicine. In 1828 he became a professor of practical medicine, and from 1843 to 1860 was rector of the Royal Surgical-Medical Academy. From 1844 onward, he served as medical officer in the Saxon Ministry of the Interior.[1]

In addition to his work involving the literary history of medicine, Choulant made many contributions to the Saxon Medizinalordnung (medical code). In 1823 he began work as an associate editor of the journal Zeitschrift für Natur- und Heilkunde.

Written works[edit]

  • ''Bereicherungen für die Geburtshilfe, für die Physiologie und Pathologie des Weibes und Kindes. with Friedrich Ludwig Meissner (1796-1860), M. Küstner and Karl Friedrich Haase (1788-1865), (Enrichment for obstetrics, on the physiology and pathology of women and children); 1821.[2]
  • Tafeln zur Geschichte der Medizin (Tables on the history of medicine); 1822.
  • Lehrbuch der speziellen Pathologie und Therapie des Menschen (Textbook on special pathology and therapy of man); 1831.
  • Anleitung zur ärztlichen Rezeptierkunst (Manual for medical dispensing); second edition 1834.
  • Anleitung zur ärztlichen Praxi (Guide to the medical practice); 1836.
  • Handbuch der Bücherkunde für die ältere Medizin; second edition 1841.
  • Bibliotheca medico-historica; 1841.
  • Geschichte und Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung (History and bibliography of anatomic illustration); 1852.
  • »Die Anfänge wissenschaftlicher Naturgeschichte und naturhistorischer Abbildung im Abendland (The beginnings of scientific natural history and natural history illustration in the West); 1857.
  • Graphische Inkunabeln für Naturgeschichte und Medizin (Graphical incunabula for natural history and medicine); 1858.[3]


Johann Ludwig Choulant (1791-1861)
  1. ^[1] Herder's Conversations-Lexicon. Freiburg im Breisgau 1854, Volume 2, p. 106 (biography, translated from German)
  2. ^Who Named It bibliography of Karl Friedrich Haase
  3. ^[2] Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon (list of publications)

Gersdorff, Hans von. Feldtbůch der Wundartzney : newlich getruckt und gebessert. (Strassburg: Hans Schotten zům Thyergarten, [1528]).

Little is known of the early life of Hans von Gersdorff, one of the most noted German surgeons of the late fifteenth and early sixteen centuries. He was born about 1455, but it is not known how or where he received his education. In 1517, he published Feldbůch der Wundartzney, or Fieldbook of Surgery (i.e., "Wound Doctoring") , in Strasburg. The book, based largely on the writings of medieval surgeon Guy de Chauliac, was extremely popular and served as one of the most basic surgical texts in Europe for a number of years. It was especially well-known for its advice on limb amputation, of which Gersdorff is reputed to have performed at least 200. He died in 1529.

The Feldbůch contains four woodcut anatomical images, including a bloodletting figure (with internal organs exposed), "Wound Man," a skeleton, and another figure showing internal organs (the "viscera-manikin"). Other images in the book, not pictured here, include surgical procedures, such as amputations, trephining, and bone setting, and images of leprosy. Virtually nothing is known about the illustrator, Johann Ulrich Wechtlin, also known as The Master of the Crossed Pilgrim's Staves (Maître aux bourdons croisés). The two folded leaves (the skeleton and the viscera-manikin) were originally published as fugitive sheets by the same printer, Johann Schott of Strasburg, in 1517 and were often inserted into the Feldbůch's 1517 edition. In later editions, such as this one printed in 1528, the leaves appear to have been standard illustrations.

Further Reading:

Choulant, L. History and bibliography of anatomic illustration. Trans. and annotated by Mortimer Frank. (New York: Hafner, 1962). Pp. 162-166.

Gersdorff, Hans von. Feldbuch der Wundarznei. (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1967). A facsimile of the 1517 ed.

Morton's Medical Bibliography (Garrison and Morton). Ed. By Jeremy Norman. 5th ed. (Aldershot, Hants., England : Scolar Press ; Brookfield, Vt., USA : Gower Pub. Co., 1991). No. 5560.

Neue Deutsche Biographie. (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1964). Vol. 6, pp. 322-323.

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